Information on waste reduction, recycling and reuse

Waste management

In accordance with the Concept, by 2030 the waste recycling proportion should be increased to 40%, by 2050 - to 50%.

Household solid waste

Annually in Kazakhstan about 4.5-5 million tons of household solid waste (HSW) are generated. The HSW is sorted out and processed at the factories in the cities of Nur-Sultan, Shymkent and Zhanaozen, as well as enterprises, mainly of small and medium-sized businesses.  

Proportion of the recycled and disposed HSW for 3rd Quarter 2020 was 15.8%.

 

Region, City

Proportion of recycled and disposed HSW

2017,%

2018, %

2019, %

3 Q 2020

1

Akmola

2.11

2.93

3.02

3

2

Aktobe

3.51

11.69

10

11

3

Almaty

24.77

27.55

23.28

15

4

Atyrau

44.33

1.69

10.44

11

5

EKR

3.17

4.84

3.28

16

6

Zhambyl

3.47

3.11

8.53

9

7

WKR

2.17

5.28

8.6

8

8

Karaganda

13.96

16.39

17.42

21

9

Kostanay

0.93

9.65

10.3

9

10

Kyzylorda

8.13

7.42

10.78

18

11

Mangystau

6.49

1.42

33.8

40

12

Pavlodar

0.23

0.12

15

16

13

NKR

3.59

7.59

10.78

14

14

Turkestan

3.48

7.17

10.05

13

15

Almaty city

10.01

5.70

10.95

9

16

Nur-Sultan

8.33

12.25

15.92

30

17

Shymkent

-

18.28

22.77

26

 

 

9.05

11.51

14.9

15.8

 

At present, the works to create "hubs" for the recyclables collection and accumulation, installation of HSW sorting lines in those regions where there is no infrastructure for their separate collection and sorting are in the process.

Separate HSW collection and sorting by region

In the republic, out of the 204 cities and districts, a separate collection at different stages has been introduced in 94 and sorting - in 80 settlements. At the same time, separate waste collection and sorting is being introduced both in large cities and districts. Over a thousand jobs have been created at the sorting complexes. According to the results of 10 months of 2020 the largest number of settlements, wherein separate HSW collection and sorting has been introduced so far is the Karaganda region (15).

Rating by separate collection

Region

Number of settlements where separate HSW collection has been introduced*

Number of settlements where HSW sorting has been implemented*

Number -of HSW recycling enterprises*

 

Total for the RK

94

80

218

1

WKR

13

1

13

2

Kostanay

7

7

26

3

Akmola region

5

1

6

4

Almaty

7

7

14

5

Pavlodar

8

4

10

6

Aktobe

6

1

28

7

Atyrau

3

4

6

8

Zhambyl

5

11

15

9

Karaganda

15

15

12

10

Turkestan

3

8

14

11

Mangystau

6

7

12

12

NKR

2

0

21

13

EKR

4

3

15

14

Nur-Sultan

1

1

3

15

Shymkent

1

1

5

16

Kyzylorda

7

8

12

17

Almaty

1

1

6

*Based on city administration (akimat) information.

According to the results of 10 months of 2020, the largest number of HSW recycling, sorting enterprises is located in Aktobe (28), Kostanay (26), North Kazakhstan (21), the smallest number is in Atyrau and Akmola (6) regions.

Development of small and medium-sized waste recycling businesses

Within the EPR, the HSW collection, transportation and recycling enterprises costs are reimbursed.

For the 3rd quarter of 2020, the volume of the collected and recycled:

  • auto components  waste amounted to 25 909 tons;
  • package waste amounted to 16 436 tons.

The volume of collected and recycled, tons

2017

2018

2019

*9 months 2020

used tires

20 047

27 710

23 020

6 458.54

waste oils

4 198

11 252

15 686

10 097.95

used batteries

20 000

20 000

18 611

9 352.89

waste antifreeze

2 300

3 400

0

0

glass package waste

5 634

22 772

22 377

423.88

plastic package waste

6 066

8 995

8 826

1 701.33

cardboard and paper package waste

45 025

31 595

10 707

14 311.02

electrical and electronic equipment waste

2 461

4 666

0

0

* tentative data as per the audit of counterparty reporting documents

 

For the 3rd quarter of 2020, 10,919 clunker units were received at the collection points. The 17 855 clunker units were transferred for recycling; the 16.6 thousand tons were recycled.

The EPR mechanism creates an infrastructure for HSW separate collection. To date, a total of 2 321 containers for the collection of mercury lamps, 12 196 containers for separate collection, 150 containers for electrical equipment have been installed. 147 recyclables reception points were created.

The EPR mechanism has been mostly used by city administration (akimats) of Nur-Sultan city and Almaty region. The work of akimats of West Kazakhstan, Aktobe and Atyrau regions is poor. There is no interaction with the EPR at the akimats of Turkestan region.

Rating

 

Region

 

Number of containers for mercury lamps and batteries

Number of containers for separate collection

Number of containers for electrical equipment

Number of waste collection points

 

Total for the RK

2321

12196

150

147

1

Nur-Sultan

370

6276

31

32

2

Almaty and Almaty region

190

1457

600

78

3

Karaganda

0

1755

37

16

4

Pavlodar

200

422

20

0

5

Kostanay

145

587

8

0

6

NKR

79

766

38

0

7

EKR

0

565

10

0

8

Kyzylorda

850

0

0

0

9

Mangystau

0

368

0

9

10

Akmola

154

0

0

12

11

Aktobe

133

0

0

0

12

Zhambyl

106

0

5

0

13

WKR

54

0

0

0

14

Atyrau

40

0

0

0

15

Shymkent and Turkestan region

0

0

0

0

 

Infrastructure of electric power stations (the ES) has been installed in the cities of Nur-Sultan and Almaty , as well as on the Nur-Sultan -Shchuchinsk highway; a total of 109 power stations are planned to be installed (51 in Nur-Sultan, 57 in Almaty , Shchuchinsk - one). To date, 103 power plants have been installed (50 in Nur-Sultan, 1 in Shchuchinsk and 52 in Almaty).

Since the beginning (November 21, 2016) of the old cars reception program, 134,584 units of old cars have been received from the population, which stimulated business, and contributed to the emergence of new enterprises.

HSW landfills

At the end of 3rd quarter of 2020, the number of HSW disposal facilities in the republic amounted to 3,292, of which 601 (18.2%) comply with the environmental and sanitary standards.

The smallest share of landfills that meet the environmental standards is in the West Kazakhstan (0.96% of the total number of landfills - 208), Pavlodar (1.49% of 336 landfills) and Kyzylorda (2.76% of 145 landfills) regions. All available landfills in the Nur-Sultan (1 landfill), Shymkent (1 landfill) and Zhambyl region (162 landfills) comply with the environmental standards.

Rating

 

Region

 

Number of HSW landfills, units*

Number of landfills meeting the standards, units*

Proportion of landfills that meet the standards,% *

 

Total for the RK

3292

601

18,26

1

Nur-Sultan

1

1

100

2

Shymkent

1

1

100

3

Zhambyl

159

159

100

4

Turkestan

163

150

92,02

5

Kostanay

266

111

41.73

6

Mangystau

24

8

33.33

7

Atyrau

82

9

10.98

8

Akmola

130

26

20.00

9

Karaganda

202

40

19.80

10

EKR

430

26

6.05

11

NKR

458

17

3.71

12

Aktobe

323

12

3.72

13

WKR

208

2

0.96

14

Kyzylorda

145

4

2.76

15

Almaty

313

13

4.15

16

Pavlodar

336

5

1.49

17

Almaty 0 is exported to the Almaty region


* Based on city administration (akimat) information

Elimination of spontaneous landfills

Space monitoring of waste disposal sites has been established jointly with JSC “NC“Kazakhstan Gharysh Sapary” an Interdepartmental Action Plan was developed to take systemic measures to eliminate and prevent spontaneous landfills jointly with interested state bodies; space monitoring of waste disposal sites has been initiated and “Taza Kazakhstan" raids were carried out, leaflets and booklets were distributed to the population in order to develop ecological culture, the MEGNR has created a hotline, since July, 2020, there were 1,099 applications received.

Following the space monitoring the 8884 unauthorized waste disposal sites were revealed, including 7147 dumps (2019 and 2020) that were liquidated  that is 80% (2019-28% 2018-14%).

No.

Region

Number of unauthorized landfills in 2020 , units

Number of recovered landfills in 2020 (incorporating the balance of the year 2019), units.

Share of recovered landfills in 2020 ,%

 

Total for the RK

8 884

7147

 

1

Nur-Sultan

533

356

67

2

Almaty

24

37

100

3

Shymkent

88

94

100

4

Akmola

1 527

742

49

5

Aktobe

757

643

85

6

Almaty

688

307

45

7

Atyrau

234

488

100

8

EKR

828

511

62

9

Zhambyl

233

194

83

10

WKR

419

204

49

11

Karaganda

1 275

2 107

100

12

Kostanay

538

421

78

13

Kyzylorda

136

99

73

14

Mangystau

131

76

58

15

Pavlodar

488

54

11

16

NKR

581

692

100

17

Turkestan

404

122

30

 

The largest waste disposal accumulation is observed in Akmola region - 1527 , of which 742 landfills were liquidated - 49% , Almaty region - 688, of which 307 landfills were liquidated - 45%, Turkestan region - 404, of which 122 landfills were liquidated - 30% , WKR - 419, of which 204 landfills were liquidated - 49%, Pavlodar region - 488, of which 54 landfills were liquidated - 11%.

Within the new Environmental Code, it is planned to introduce licensing of the waste processing enterprises, and for the waste disposal organizations, the responsibility to send a notification to the authorized body and the presence of GPS sensors on their vehicles.

Projects construction plans for 2020

On the territory of Ili district of Almaty region the LLP « Waste Energy Kazakhstan » has planned to build a full cycle capacity of 220 thousand tons per year and an organic waste plant processing plant by the LLP «ZORBIOGAZ». Those projects are the winners of the auction for the selection of BioES projects by the Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Industrial waste

There has been accumulated about 31.6 billion tons of industrial waste. About 1 billion tons are produced annually. These are mainly man-made mineral formations, including overburden and ash (70% of the total), waste from the manufacturing industry (10% of the total), and other activities (20%). The work to recycle them is underway.

The share of recycled and recovered industrial waste in the 3rd quarter of 2020 is 29.7%.

Region, city

Accumulated

Recovered, including:

Industrial waste, thousand tons

Industrial waste

Total

Used, thousand tons

Recycled, thousand tons

%

1

Akmola

21 353 000

3 598 000

3 598 000

-*

16.85

2

Aktobe

26 852 760

921 000

3 000

918 000

3.43

3

Almaty

197 002

0

 

-*

0.00

4

Atyrau

179 445

95 735

 

95 735

53.35

5

EKR

27 446 565

19 933 824

19 916 100

17 724

72.63

6

Zhambyl

8 802 655

599 937

247 363

352 574

6.82

7

WKR

60 590

23 500

7 950

15 550

38.79

8

Karaganda

110 707 750

46 551 000

46 550 125

875

42.05

9

Kostanay

 

0

 

-*

0

10

Kyzylorda

62 000

15 200

15 200

-*

24.52

11

Mangystau

300 000

124 986

24 999

99 987

41.66

12

Pavlodar

104 000 145

18 876 877

18 445 949

430 928

18.15

13

NKR

636 200

132 000

78 200

53 800

20.75

14

Turkestan

5 009 685

3 512

3 400

112

0.07

15

Almaty city

0

0

0

0

0

16

 Nur-Sultan

419

0

419

-*

100

17

Shymkent

680

80

80

-*

11.76

Total

305 608 896

90 875 651

 

88 890 785

 

1 985 285

29.7

 

*At the time of this report preparation, information on the waste processing by the Akmola, Almaty, Kyzylorda regions, Nur-Sultan and Shymkent cities was not provided.

The remaining volume of accumulated (about 680 million tons) waste is annually disposed at the tailing dumps and landfills.

The main proportion of industrial waste comes from the mining enterprises. They form constantly growing dumps and landfills throughout the country. According to the MIID data, 1.5 thousand objects are currently registered in the State Cadastre of man-made mineral formation.

The taken measures:

In 2018, Aluminum of Kazakhstan JSC placed 13.3 million tons of overburden (37% of the total volume accumulated) in the mined-out area of the quarries.

JSC "NC" KazAvtoZhol "has used ash and slag waste in the road construction as a substitute for natural stone materials.

Persistent organic pollutants (POP)

Since the Soviet times, the country has accumulated a colossal volume of POPs- containing waste: 40.3 thousand pieces of PCB-containing oil transformers and capacitors, 82.6 tons and 4 100 liters of obsolete prohibited, unusable pesticides, 3.7 thousand tons buried pesticides, 13.5 thousand pesticide containers.

In order to resolve the issue, the Ministry, together with UNIDO, is carrying out a project, within which it is planned to transfer a hazardous waste disposal facility to Kazakhstan free of charge in 2021.

Plans for 2021:

  1. Development and approval of the Waste Management Program;
  2. Holding an auction for the selection of energy waste disposal projects.
 

Last update: 14.01.2021