Who should be screened and when?
Screening is a preventive medical examination of healthy people of a certain age to identify the risk factors and diseases at an early stage. Screening examinations help to identify the disease at an early stage or a predisposition to the disease, choose an optimal treatment and prescribe a set of preventive measures.
Who can be screened
The screenings are carried out for specific diseases and for specific age groups. The screening is carried out in 2 age categories:
1. The children aged 0 to 18 years. The children undergo preventive examinations annually until they reach the age of majority. The children of preschool institutions, schoolchildren, students of secondary specialized educational institutions and students under 18 years old are examined by a mobile team in the educational institutions.
The examination of the children who do not attend the pre-school institutions is carried out at the outpatient facility or family health center.
2. Adults aged 30 to 70.
The examination takes place even in the absence of any symptoms it is just for confidence in your good health.
The screenings are completely free. The funding for preventive examinations is carried out at the expense of compulsory health insurance system, therefore, to undergo the screening, you must have an insurance status.
To undergo the screening, you need to contact the outpatient facility at the place of your staying or attachment to the facility. For that, each primary health care service has screening rooms. You must have an identity card with you.
When passing the established screening tests, the employee is granted social leave of up to 3 days with payment according to the average earnings.
Which diseases are screened for in adults?
The screening examinations of the adult population are aimed at early detection and prevention of the following:
- the major diseases of the circulatory system – which are arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease;
- the diabetes mellitus among the men and women;
- the precancerous, malignant neoplasms of the cervix among the women;
- the precancerous, malignant neoplasms of the breast among the women;
- the glaucoma among the men and women;
- the precancerous, malignant neoplasms of the colon and rectum among the men and women
- the malignant neoplasms of the esophagus, stomach, liver and prostate gland;
- The chronic hepatitis B and C in the people at risk.
At what age the adults are screened?
- The men and women aged 40, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 64 years old are tested for early detection of circulatory system diseases (arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease) and diabetes mellitus; as well as those who are not registered in dispensary for arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus diseases;
- For early detection of glaucoma, the men and women aged 40, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 64, 66, 68, 70 years old who are not registered in dispensary are checked for the glaucoma;
- The women aged 40, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 64, 66, 68, 70 years old, who are not registered for breast cancer, should come to the early detection of the precancerous and neoplastic breast diseases;
- At the age of 30, 34, 38, 42, 46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 70 years old the women who are not registered for cervical cancer are expected for early detection of the precancerous diseases and cervical cancer;
- For early detection of the precancerous and neoplastic colon and rectum, the men and women aged 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 64, 66, 68, 70 years old who are not registered for polyposis, colon cancer and rectum are checked;
- For early detection of the chronic hepatitis B and C, the persons with blood diseases, malignant neoplasms, as well as those who are on hemodialysis, and who have a history of surgical interventions, blood and its components transfusions, are checked.
The examination procedure
The patient undergoes a screening test: answers questions about nutrition, the presence of bad habits, the level of physical activity, hereditary diseases, etc.
The patient's height and weight are immediately measured, the Kettle index is determined, the level of cholesterol and sugar in the blood is determined by express method, and the blood pressure and intraocular pressure are measured.
Further, if necessary, the doctor prescribes a referral for an additional examination or consultation with a narrow specialist.
After the patient has been examined in the screening room (for early detection of the behavioral factors, hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus and glaucoma), he is examined for cancer pathology (if he is subject to this type of screening by the age).
For example, the women aged 30 to 70 years old in the examination room are taken a smear for cancer cytology, the women aged 40 to 70 undergo mammography for early detection of breast cancer, and the men and women aged 50 to 70 pass occult blood feces analysis for early detection of colon cancer.
Screening test results
At the end of the screening study, a doctor, considering the opinions of the narrow specialists and laboratory diagnostic studies, determines the following dynamic observation groups:
- Group 1A - healthy people without risk factors: persons who do not present any complaints and who have no chronic diseases, risk factors or dysfunctions of individual organs and systems in the history and during the examination;
- Group 1B - healthy people with risk factors: persons with identified risk factors, borderline states, requiring observation and preventive intervention (persons who have revealed minor deviations from the established normal limits in blood pressure and other physiological characteristics that do not affect functional activity of the organism);
- Group 2 - practically healthy persons with a history of acute and chronic disease without exacerbations during the last 2 years;
- Group 3 - patients: persons in need of dynamic observation, treatment and rehabilitation.
The healthy (1A, 1B groups) and practically healthy (group 2) persons undergo:
- subsequent screening study in the outpatient facility according to the frequency of corresponding screening study;
- health improvement in the healthy lifestyle office or school, according to the outpatient facility and healthy lifestyle service disease profile.
The persons with chronic diseases identified during examinations are subject to registration and dynamic observation according to the list of chronic diseases, followed by a complex of therapeutic and prophylactic measures aimed at restoring, improving and strengthening the health.
If the acute diseases are detected, the patient is examined, treated, and assessed for his state of health until the patient’s complete recovery.
Last update: 24.02.2021