What you need to know about dactyloscopy and genome registration of citizens


From January 1, 2021, the Law "On Dactyloscopy and Genome Registration" will be introduced, which stipulates collection, processing and protection of dactyloscopy, genome information.

Its relevance is based primarily on security issues.

Moreover, there are many situations in life (fires and plane crashes with numerous victims in different states, discovery of unidentified corpses, biological traces in the places of unsolved crimes, disappearance of people without a trace) when it is impossible to establish or confirm an identity of a person.

Availability of dactyloscopy and genome information in the relevant databases will make it possible to identify victims, and also reduce the lists of those gone missing and unidentified corpses.  

In the article, we will describe the rules for carrying dactyloscopy and genome registration.

Dactyloscopy registration

Dactyloscopy information involves information about the structural features of papillary patterns of a person's fingers and about his/her personality.

An electronic code of papillary patterns will be recorded to biometric passports and national IDs of citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

A citizen will undergo the procedure when obtaining new, biometric documents, i.e. a national ID (with a chip already installed in it) and a new passport of a citizen of the Republic of Kazakhstan (also with a built-in chip).

Children under 12 years old are not subject to dactyloscopy.

From January 1, 2021, children aged 12 to 16 can undergo dactyloscopy only upon their consent and in the presence of a guardian, while from the age of 16 dactyloscopy will be mandatory for all Kazakhstani citizens.

It is not necessary to immediately change your documents in 2021 as they will be valid until the end of the period specified in them.

Individuals who have reached the age of 16 are subject to dactyloscopy registration: 

  • citizens applying for a passport or national ID of a citizen of the Republic of Kazakhstan;
  •  citizens of Kazakhstan, foreigners and stateless persons in respect of whom a decision was made to issue a seafarer's identity card of the Republic of Kazakhstan;
  • foreigners and stateless persons permanently residing in the Republic of Kazakhstan;
  • foreigners and stateless persons applying for a residence permit, stateless person certificate, refugee certificate;
  • immigrants who arrived in Kazakhstan as domestic workers with the aim of performing work for employers - individuals in the household;
  • foreigners and stateless persons subject to expulsion from the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan or fall within the scope of international agreements on readmission ratified by the Republic of Kazakhstan;
  • foreigners and stateless persons when obtaining visas of the Republic of Kazakhstan;
  • foreigners and stateless persons when crossing the state border of Kazakhstan.

The national dactyloscopy database will contain prints of fingers and palms, but the chip embedded into the document will only store thumbprints (in case of amputation or pathology of the ring fingers).

When undergoing border control, besides looking at the camera, Kazakhstani citizens will also need to put their finger on the scanner.

Also, there are some limitations: persons who do not have both hands or papillary patterns on the nail phalanges of all fingers of both hands will not undergo dactyloscopy.

Dactyloscopy data of a citizen is stored until his/her death is established. Dactyloscopy data accumulated in paper will be digitized.

If within Kazakhstan the database will be replenished mainly by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Industry and Infrastructure Development and National Security Committee, collection of dactyloscopy information from citizens of Kazakhstan abroad will be carried out by employees of foreign missions of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Genome registration

Genome information is a set of symbols encoded according to strictly defined rules in the form of a combination of letters and numbers about certain fragments of human deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

The genome database will be created for crime prevention and identification of victims.

The convicted for certain types of crime and unidentified persons, whose biological material was withdrawn in the course of investigative actions are subject to collection of DNA data.

The relatives of citizens gone missing will be able to donate genome information on a voluntary basis with written consent.

Collection of this information is entrusted to the Department of Internal Affairs with participation of DNA laboratories, forensic and forensic and medical examination bodies of the Ministry of Justice.  

The process will be limited to the collection of saliva from the inside of the cheeks.

In most cases, the state intends to store the obtained genome information or genome profile for 25 years from the date of collection.

The following persons are subject to genome registration:

  • persons convicted of committing criminal offenses, the list of which is determined by the Law "On Dactyloscopy and Genome Registration”;
  • unidentified persons whose biological material was withdrawn during the pre-trial investigation for unsolved grave or especially grave criminal offenses, as well as all categories of criminal offenses against sexual inviolability and sexual freedom of an individual;
  • biological relatives of missing citizens, first of all, parents (parent) and (or) children (child), and in their absence, other biological relatives, depending on the degree of relationship;
  • unidentified corpse.

Responsibility for refusal to undergo dactyloscopy and genome registration

Refusal of citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan to undergo mandatory dactyloscopy registration entails a fine of 2 MCI.

Refusal of foreigners or stateless persons to undergo compulsory dactyloscopy registration entails administrative expulsion from the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Refusal of citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan, foreigners or stateless persons to undergo compulsory genome registration entails a fine of 5 MCI.

Evasion from passing the genome registration of a convicted person on probation entails liability under Article 176 of the Criminal Code through to cancellation of probation.

Last update: 03.12.2020