Vaccination against the coronavirus infection
What is known about the vaccines?
Vaccination against the coronavirus has been started since February 1, 2021. What is meant here is the Russian “Sputnik V” vaccine produced by Karaganda pharmaceutical complex. “Sputnik V” is the world`s first registered vaccine for prevention of the coronavirus infection. It was developed in the N. Gamaleya National Research Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology under the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. The two-component vaccine was developed based on a human adenovirus vector. In Kazakhstan, the Russian vaccine is produced by Karaganda pharmaceutical complex. To be more precise, the substance is delivered from Russia while in Kazakhstan the substance is processed into a finished pharma product. Kazakhstani stocks and raw materials are used. Mass vaccination will start from March 2021. The vaccine won`t be provided free-of-charge to all the Kazakhstani citizens. The citizens can apply for a free-of-charge vaccination within the statutory free-of-charge medical assistance. The Kazakhstani vaccine is called QazCovid-in. That is an inactivated vaccine, which was developed in May 2020.
Who will be vaccinated first?
During the first stages, the vaccine will be provided to people from the risk categories. If the volume of the vaccine allows, then the rest of Kazakhstani citizens will also be able to get the vaccine.
The following individuals with a high risk of contracting the coronavirus infection (priority-based order) are subject to the vaccination against the coronavirus:
- medical employees, first of all employees of infectious diseases hospitals, ambulances, resuscitation and intensive care units, health care organizations providing primary health care, emergency rooms of health care organizations providing inpatient care, employees of the sanitary and epidemiological service;
- district police officers;
- personnel of medical and social as well as private childcare centers;
- employees of Emergency Situations Service, Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Internal Affairs, National Security Committee, State Security Service of the Republic of Kazakhstan;
- employees of Presidential Affairs Department of the Republic of Kazakhstan, civil servants, citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan working for the diplomatic and consular missions accredited in Kazakhstan, members of national teams;
- people with the chronic diseases (diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary and heart diseases).
Where the vaccination is performed?
Vaccination of citizens takes place in the vaccination facilities of local medical organizations. Vaccination of specialized groups is performed at the place of service of a relevant agency.In certain cases (low population size, lack of a stationary vaccination premise, lack of refrigeration equipment with a low temperature regime), mobile vaccination facilities or mobile vaccination teams are arranged for vaccination.
A vaccination team is assembled in each vaccination facility with regard to a daily workload per 1 team, which is no more than 60 vaccines (for mobile teams no more than 40 vaccines).
Thus, 1 vaccination team consists of 1 doctor, 1 treatment nurse and 1 registrar if required.
In rural areas, a vaccination team can consist of 1 rural paramedic (if there is no doctor), 1 treatment nurse and 1 registrar if required.The vaccines that were done are registered in the established registration forms (a separate register of preventive vaccinations against COVID, a vaccination record card, a patient's medical record, a vaccination section of the medical information system) with indication of the date of vaccination, type of vaccination (component I or II), manufacturer, batch number, vaccine reaction.
It is planned that an electronic vaccination passport will be introduced.
An electronic vaccination passport is a document certifying that a person got preventive vaccines. It will provide information on medications a person received, doses, the dates and also, whether there were any reactions after a vaccination.
As soon as a person will get a vaccine against the coronavirus infection, information about it will become available in the eGov mobile app.
Who won`t be vaccinated against the coronavirus?
Vaccination against the coronavirus in Kazakhstan is contraindicated to children under 18 and people over 65 due to the lack of data on its efficiency and safety.
Individuals with permanent and temporary medical contraindications to the preventive vaccines are not subject to vaccination against COVID pursuant to the Order of Minister of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan as of October 21, 2020 No. KR DSM-146/2020 “On Approval of the List of Medical Contraindications to Carry Preventive Vaccinations”.
Patients receiving immunosuppressive treatment and patients with an immune deficiency may not develop a sufficient immune response. Therefore, taking drugs that suppress the function of the immune system is contraindicated for at least 1 month before and after vaccination due to the risk of decreased immunogenicity. Therefore, intake of medical products that suppress the immune system function is contraindicated for at least 1 month prior and after vaccination due to the risk of decreased immunogenicity.
Individuals suffering from an acute and symptomless COVID forms are not subject to vaccination.Individuals who had a contact with those suffering from infectious diseases, including COVID, get the vaccine after a quarantine.No screening is performed prior to vaccination to check antibodies against COVID (EIA and PCR research). It is recommended to vaccinated those who suffered from any COVID forms in 6 months after convalescence with regard to health assessment prior to vaccination.
Can one withdraw from a vaccine?
It is possible to withdraw from the vaccine against the coronavirus. The vaccination is carried out on a voluntary basis with provision of consent by a person getting a vaccine.
Pursuant to the Article 77 of the Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On People's Health and Healthcare System", Kazakhstani citizens have a right to withdraw from preventive vaccines.
What are the side effects of the vaccine?
More frequently, short-term general side effects can develop from the vaccine, such as: short-term flu-like syndrome with chills, fever, arthralgia, myalgia, asthenia, general discomfort, headache.
Also, local reactions might appear such as: painfulness at the injection site, hyperemia and swelling.
Less common symptoms are nausea, dyspepsia, decreased appetite, and sometimes an increase in regional lymph nodes.
Some patients may develop allergic reactions, a short-term increase in the level of hepatic transaminases, creatinine and creatine phosphokinase in the blood serum.
Also, there is a risk of contracting the coronavirus prior to vaccination or in between injection of two components.
The “Sputnik V” should be used with caution for patients with malignant tumors. All the above side effects are within the expected research protocol. It should be noted that a fake information on the vaccine side effects with the photographs of “consequences” appear on the Internet. Official authorities urge to trust to the reliable sources only.
Last update: 10.09.2021